Voie Libre n°42 mai 2007
Voie Libre n°42 mai 2007
  • Prix facial : 6,90 €

  • Parution : n°42 de mai 2007

  • Périodicité : trimestriel

  • Editeur : LR Presse

  • Format : (210 x 285) mm

  • Nombre de pages : 76

  • Taille du fichier PDF : 54,2 Mo

  • Dans ce numéro : réseau Durand & Gault à Durango.

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In 1907, Baldwin delivered a 28 ton 244 type Forney to the SR & RL, number 8. Unfortunately, Baldwin had retained the inside frame (1) design of the original 044 T engines and N°8 was soon hated by driving crews, being considered as unstable and even downright dangerous. Its pony truck proved ineffective and it had to be weighed down with a lump of granite to remain on the track ! Baldwin therefore opted for the more stable outside frame solution. In July 1909, the SR & RL received its first outside frame Forney, number 9. This locomotive provided reliable service three times a day, heading the Rangeley Express : 73km travelled in 2 hours, with 4% gradients between Farmington and Rangeley. In the 1930’s, near the end of operations, N°9 was restricted to hauling far less prestigious mixed trains. The engine was scrapped after closure of the SR & RL in 1936. The Bachmannmodel Available in two versions, inside frame and outside frame (the latter photographed in this article), the BachmannForney is not a totally accurate scale model of 244 T engines 8 and 9 of the SR & RL. In particular, the absence of a steam-driven air compressor (fitted to the SR & RL engines from 1920) will be noted, together with the fact that the engine should actually be in 0n2 scale (12.7 mm gauge track). This slight deviation from prototype reality is implicitly acknowledged by the fact that while the engine is supplied in SR & RL livery, the numbers selected by Bachmann, 11 and 12, never actually existed in the company’s roster. Having said this, the BachmannForney - available in the Spectrum range - follows in the footsteps of the 280 Consolidation (see Issue 36 of Voie Libre) in being a quality model, highly detailed, suitably motorized with a 5- pole motor and weighing in at a respectable 410 grams. The motion, as wellas the cab with glazed windows and opening doors, not forgetting the detailed boiler backhead, are all carefully reproduced. The locomotive is fitted with BachmannE-Z Mate couplings (Kadee compatible) and supplied with a few separately applied detail parts allowing for the choice of the headlight (oil, arc or electric lamp) and the pony truck type (inside or outside axleboxes). On the digital side The engine is supplied with a DCC/NMRA compatible BachmannE-Z decoder, (three functions : stop/run/direction, speed control, front headlight on/off) which can operate without modification with any conventional DC controller. Since December 2006, Bachmannoffers a version fitted with sound, using a SoundTraxx/Tsunami decoder specially developed for Bachmann, with a loudspeaker located in the tender. For ca. 80 USD extra, the following features are available : F1 = bell F2 = whistle (long) F3 = whistle (short) F4 = exhaust F5 = turbo-generator F6 = filling of the water tank F7 = filling of the coal bunker F8 = sound stop/start As far as US artisans are concerned, Mount Blue Models (who have supplied a conversion kit for the BachmannGoose ref. 1, see Issue 38 of Voie Libre) has already released a wooden cab to replace the original steel cab on the inside frame version, reproducing engine N°7 of the WW & F railroad. To conclude : another fine 0n30 scale engine by Bachmann, but a risky bet on the commercial front. Prototypical narrow gauge Forneys were uncommon on industrial, logging and mining railways, due to their length and rigid chassis (2). Nevertheless, we hope 0n30 scale modellers – a community that is keen on mining and logging – will show enthusiasm for this fine model. [Footnotes] (1) Inside frame chassis have the frames placed conventionally between the wheels, whereas outside frames chassis have the frames placed between the wheels and the motion. The latter arrangement, typical of US narrow gauge, provides for enhanced stability and wider fireboxes. (2) A few exceptions : 30 inch gauge 044 T Forneys (corresponding to 0n30 scale) were used in sugar cane fields in the US in the early 20 th century, in Louisiana and Hawaï. The Forney type [Box] In 1866, Matthias Nace Forney (1835-1908), an American engineer, took out a patent for an « improved 044 type tank engine ». The « Forney type » designates tank engines whose chassis has been stretched to accommodate the water and fuel bunker : the latter is carried by a four (or six) wheeler bogie. This typical bogie was described as an advantage, as it enabled the weight on the driving wheels to be kept constant. To enable the engine to handle tight curves (30 m radius), the second driving axle was sometimes flangeless. Most of the Forneys had the 044 T wheel arrangement. There were also some six-coupled 064 T and 066 T types, as wellas the 244 T types in service on the Maine Two Footers. Originally, Matthias Forney had designed his engine to run tender first, making it a 440 T. These engines were simple, economical and compact, but the reduced capacity of the tender reduced their operating range. The Forneys were therefore particularly suited to operating suburban trains and in particular the « Elevated » railways in Chicago, New-York and Boston, who used them massively until electrification took place in the early 20 th century. Over the years, Forneys were produced by different manufacturers : Hinkley in Boston, where Matthias Forney worked from 1870 to 1875, Porter and Baldwin. A few engines of this type were built in Europe, notably by SLM in Winterthur, who in 1886 delivered Forneys to the Finnish railways. [Captions] 1 - Front view 2 - Close-up : motion/boiler/domes/funnel 3 - Close-up : boiler/domes/whistle/bell 4 - Close-up : carrying bogie 5 - Rear view tender/cab 6 - Close-up : front buffer beam 7 - Mount Bleu Models conversion cab kit (photo MBM) 8 - Close-up : motion 9 - Portrait of Matthias Nace Forney (DR, Frédéric Delaitre collection). Page 28 : Scenery Vegetation and garden railways : a happy marriage ! In Issue 35 of Voie Libre, Bernard explained how he had laid the track on his garden railway. We then asked him how he had proceeded to create the natural environment. Here is his reply, with help from his wife who was actively involved in this area… Text : CATHERINE & BERNARD DÉLUARD - Photos : BERNARD DÉLUARD Before tackling this vast topic, there appear to be two radically different options for a garden railway : • on the one hand, the railway brings life to an existing garden created by an amateur gardener, who had all the necessary knowledge to do so. In this case, there aren’t many train-related gardening issues to be solved… The railway must adapt.• on the other hand, the train is the main topic for a railway modeller and the garden provides the scenery, rather like a classical indoor layout. But in this case, with all the constraints related to living plants. I find myself closer to the second option : my railway was built in the garden of the family country home and almost three years passed before seeing the first plants that were not weeds (photo 2). At that early stage, mainly concentrating on the « railway » side, I had « sub-contracted » the gardening work to the owners, namely my parents-in-law. Then, in order to obtain a reasonable result as quickly as possible, my wife finally took charge. My share consisted in setting the « technical » conditions (loading gauge constraints and if possible scale) and in carrying out the « heavy work » such as haulage (earth and stones for the rocks), plantation, implementation of an automatic watering system, heavy maintenance… Main choices First of all, as is the case for the prototype, the railway will have to adapt to the relief, with the latter influencing the pegging-out of the track and the gradients. The location of the line will have to be planned carefully, with due regard to the presence of trees and other existing and unmovable vegetation. In my case, a border hedge planted in the adjacent property generated a lot of shade, as wellas fruit trees located in the middle of the railway… To quote my wife : « Keep in mind that a tree above the railway will prevent it from getting dry in summer but willalso rule out all sun-seeking plants and also cause thousands of leaves to fall on the line every autumn, all of which will have to be endlessly collected. Hence the great difficulty in keeping a garden railway clean in autumn ! » (photo 3) And a fruit tree is also the despair of the gardener, as in addiiton to leaves, it willalso drop its fruit. For example, plums stain the trackbed, and I’d rather not mention the awkwardness of removing rotting plums that have fallen among the branches of lineside shrubs, coating them with sticky goo ! Under the walnut tree, nuts also create particularly resistant stains ! » This at last provides an explanation for the mystery of the station names : Pruniers (plumtree) and Noyers (walnut tree)-sur-Couches ! Furthermore, this existing vegetation continues to grow inexorably but can also wither and die, also influencing the life and maintenance of the railway. Organising space While designing the trackplan, or once this has been determined, it is necessary - and I quote my wife once again - « to decide on the « main » environmental areas, of their arrangement as a function of the land (slope, shade, sun, etc), and of the railway’s features (location of the stations, of tracks, of bridges, tunnels…). Where to have a forest ? A meadow ? An orchard ? A hedge ? etc… » 4
Here is some further advice, based on a good fifteen years of experience ! You can : • « Foresee a high hedge of large trees, preferably on a curve (conifers, box…)• Keep in mind the need to disseminate a few shrubs or bushes along the line to hide the train under certain angles (photo 1) : a train going round in circles, constantly visible, soon gets monotonous. At least for the many greenhorns who admire your railway during family barbecues ! • Also remember that you don’t always observe the train from the same place ; viewers move along the track ; you must therefore plan surprises by avoiding that the whole railway can be seen from the first viewpoint : natural screens provided by vegetation (hedges, forests) are useful helps. And good scenic dividers ! • Place the basic structural elements as naturally as possible : + a meadow by the waterside if there is a stream, hence cows having a drink… (photo 4) + a few shrubs with drooping branches by the waterside + don’t hesitate to foresee a forest consisting of several trees of the same species (Cryptomerias for example). One specimen of many different plants is too reminiscent of a… « gardening catalogue » ! • Remember to plant plants in line along the track and to keep round, low shrubs at a distance, as they spread very quickly, must be trimmedto clear the loading gauge and hence lose their pleasing shape.• Higher plants and those whose leaves or needles are over-scale should be placed in hollow areas and in the background, while the most realistic ones should be planted close the buildings and in the foreground. » Preparing the ground : relief Usually, a certain degree of « relief » (photo 2), pre-existing or not, gives interest to the railway, allowing for the construction of bridges and tunnels, not forgetting their corollary, gradients ! But, if the relief is created artificially, remember that the materials used will naturally tend to move towards the lower points, under the influence of gravity, subsidence and rainfall. Earth has to be added on regularly to compensate for such phenomena ! If the structure carrying the track cannot remain in place by itself, you will have to install rocks, namely large stones that will hold the earth in place until the vegetation has grown enough roots to do so itself ! These stones can represent embankment sides or rock faces, but can also be largely hidden by earth (see photo 7, page 47 of Issue 35 of Voie Libre). Generally, providing less earth will ensure that the shrubs don’t grow too fast ! At this stage, some spaces can be filled with heath-mould for plants that cannot grow in chalky soil. A river : why not ? To improve drainage or simply add coolness or some life, a stream (or a small river) can be installed. In this case, it is wise to plan for it from the outset, as the river bed will have to follow the strongest slope line, both to remain natural and to ensure drainage of rainwater or excess watering. This bed must be made as waterproof as possible, especially if it is foreseen to « recycle » the water in a closed circuit (as was the case on my railway). A suitable solution could be to use a « liner » or a coat of plastic film, but its installation must be studied carefully in the early stages of the railway’s design. I opted for building a river bed out of stones, cemented together, which were also used to hold the earth in place (photo 4). I made this bed waterproof by adding a few coats of stratification resin in which I included small pebbles and miscellaneous debris. This method provided a more natural result but has the drawback of requiring compulsory and regular filling of cracks… ! At the lowest point, this stream leads into a large buried tank hiding a 12V pump used in caravans, which reverses the water back to the top and whose output is adjusted by a variable regulator (an old Jouef controller does just fine !). This tank is connected to the garden water supply and the water level is kept constant by a toilet flush mechanism (photo 5). Paths In the garden, you cannot get to the middle of the layout by… ducking under ! The widest stretches of the river (when dry !) are used to reach the inside of the railway to look after both the plants and the track. As the trackbed proper cannot support a 1/1 scale figure, places have to be foreseen where this figure can walk, crouch or kneel… without breaking anything ! A concrete road can provide the answer ! (photo 6). Plants : watering Take care, natural plants just keep on getting taller and broader ! Avoid planting too many and space them out more than you would tend to when bringing young plants back from the garden centre. Plantation techniques are traditional gardening ones and I need say nothing more on the subject. However, as planting space is sometimes at a premium, digging out the earth must be done with care so as not to damage the infrastructure ; a small hand-held trowel, sturdy and with a short handle, will come in useful ! (photo 7). To cover a larger surface, divideup the plants bought in plastic cups, taking all the necessary precautions. Watering is naturally required after planting and during the early stages of growth ! As mentioned above, earth that is less rich and less deep will hinder growth, just as using a dwarfing substance which I have not, however, attempted to experiment with ! Shortage of water, or even drought, can also hinder plant growth, but this is dangerous ! So much so that I decided to installan automatic watering system to reduce the mortality rate after long summers of absence ! In two strategically-located points, I simply installed a shower head and an adjustable sprinkler, connected downstream from an electronic programmer activated or stopped by a dampness detector (photo 8). Pruning To keep the plants under control, you have to prune them (photos 9 & 10). Some plants grow very fast, especially in springtime ; « heavy » pruning is then required. Then, during the remainder of the year, « routine » pruning will take place in accordance with growth. While pruning shears are an essential tool, we also use a pair of grass shears to prune all the plants on the railway. Before cutting a shoot or a branch, attempt to get it out of sight temporarily to see what the pruning will look like. If your judgement is flawed or you make a pruning mistake, the plant will grow again, but not necessarily at the right place nor very fast ! To take the proper decision, put your head at ground level as if you were a scale figure, standing by the lineside, rather than watching from a hot-air balloon ! To modify the appearance of a plant, I use gardening wire : a small strip of green plastic around a piece of metal wire, which allows me to straighten a branch or hold those of a conifer closer to the trunk, when it has been decided to remove the inside branches to reduce its volume while preserving the outside branches. Also to modify the angle of the plant by « mooring » it temporarily to a stake or a nearby wall. Cleaning Obviously, pruning will generate debris that will have to be removed ! As all sorts of odds and ends are brought by the wind, the insects and the birds, and as neighbouring leaves - not to mention those from trees above the railway - fall in autumn and even before, I have taken to using an old « drum » vacuum cleaner whose motor and hose have been replaced and whose tissue or paper bag has been replaced by a homemade sack of very fine plastic mesh. (photos 3 & 11). Before using the vacuum cleaner, all natural elements such as dead twigs, rotten fruit or bird droppings must be removed by hand. They tend to become embedded in unexpected corners ! To remove moss where it is undesirable, chemical substances and handremoval have proven to be ineffective. The only truly efficient solution is a high-pressure cleaner fitted with a flat spray nozzle (photo 12). In this case, the area to be cleaned must be sturdy and strongly fixed to the ground and its environment able to withstand splashes ! This treatment rejuvenates station courtyards, roads… and ballast – provided it has been solidly glued in place ! So much for an overview of this vast subject. In the sequel to this article, we’ll talk about various types of plants, their qualities, how to use them, their behaviour… (photo 13). ■ [Photo captions] 1 - The Pinguely 0-6-0 T (Gécomodel) with a Sarthe consist (also from Gécomodel) is workinguphill to Soue, snaking along among the box and lonicera… Sedum and moss cover the damp ground… 2 - on this picture taken in spring 1993, the perennial plants are in place, such as saxifrage at the foot of the young Elwoodi hedge. To the left of the picture, a « Taxus Baccata Fastigiata Aurea », recently planted and next to the bridge, a dwarf thuja which has grown very little over 15 years ! 3 - In autumn, leaves and plums fall… Before any attempt at operating the railway, it must be cleaned, in particular with a vacuum cleaner ! 4 - The stream runs behind Pruniers station. The grass being munched by the cows is Sagina subalata, the bush behind the lamp post is a Hebe and to the left, small ferns decorate the opposite bank. 5 - In the bottom of the green plastic tank, buried and receiving the water from the stream, the blue reversing pump is fixed to its filter while next to it, a float controls the supply valve located under the water, to the right, close to the drainage plug. To the right of the tank, the camouflaging elements and above, the electrical supply box for the pump, normally concealed under a flat stone. 6 - The road was used as an access path to strengthen the left bank of the stream and make it water-tight again. 7 - The tools of the « gardenmodeller ». The cold chisel was required to enlarge the hole accommodating the plant whose pot is in the dried-up bed of the stream. To the left, some Iberis sempervirens provides attractive ground cover on the embankment. 8 - From the watering system supply tap, fitted with a programmer, a pipe is fixed to the walland supplies, via two simple valves – in the foreground – a brass nozzle adjusted to provide a wide conical spray and, in the background, a PVC shower head, whose holes have been modified to send fine jets of water at a distance… The orientation of both devices can be adjusted in all directions through a 90° bend fitted with two clamp collars. 5

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