Architecture Canada n°6 1er semestre 2009
Architecture Canada n°6 1er semestre 2009
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  • Parution : n°6 de 1er semestre 2009

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  • Editeur : Naylor Canada

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  • Nombre de pages : 52

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www.raic.org/2009 High-Performance Schools From east to west, architects are designing high-performance schools By Christopher Guly In schools across Canada, students are learning about the importance of environmental sustainability. But there’s no greater lesson than experience, and architects are helping to provide that by designing energy and cost-efficient green buildings in which children and teenagers spend their days during the school year. 1 Citadel High School east elevation | 2 Citadel High School main (west) entry | 3 Citadel High School aerial view | 4 Citadel High School cafeteria 5 Citadel High School classroom corridor Green by innovation in Halifax On the east coast, one of Nova Scotia’s newest schools has no fuel on site and is aiming for a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Canada Silver rating from the Canada Green Building Council. Citadel High School, which replaced two secondary schools in downtown Halifax, opened in September 2007 at the foot of the city’s historic Citadel Hill. The 18,450-squaremetre, $25-million building is nearly three football fi elds long, can accommodate over 1,200 students, and has two gymnasiums, one of which is operated by the municipality as a community centre. In addition, space has been 14 ■ THE ROYAL ARCHITECTURAL INSTITUTE OF CANADA/L’INSTITUT ROYAL D’ARCHITECTURE DU CANADA 1 2 allocated for an 800-seat performance theatre, which is yet to be fi tup. Citadel High is also fossil fuel-free, says George Cotaras, MRAIC, vice-president and general manager of Fowler Bauld & Mitchell in Halifax and who led the design team of the high school in conjunction with Fellows & Company Ltd. of Fredericton. « The school’s heating system is fed by steam from the nearby Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, » says Cotaras. The provincially owned hospital, about two blocks away from the school (built by the provincial government ; Nova Scotia Department of Transportation and Infrastructure Renewal), FOWLER BAULD & MITCHELL LTD. | PHOTOS : KEN KAM
was willing to sell its surplus steam to Citadel High « at a real deal, » he explains. « At the time, it was the equivalent of buying heating oil at 23 cents a litre. » Now, an underground pipe delivers steam from the hospital to the school. On cold days, Citadel High is kept warmby an in-fl oor radiant heating system. Heat recovery wheels remove 67 per cent of the heat from exhaust air streams and transfer it to the incoming ventilation air. No fossil fuels, no gas – not even for the science labs. « Students use electric Bunsen burners, » says Cotaras. On energy conservation, wall insulation was installed to reduce heat loss by 18 to 34 per cent more (depending on the location) than required to meet the Model National Energy Code for Buildings. Similarly, roof insulation reduces heat loss by between 20 and 44 per cent more than what’s required by the code. All of the school’s windows have spectrally selective coatings that have 10 to 26 per cent less heat loss and which also reduce solar heat gain. The white roof, which covers most of Citadel High, refl ects light and heat, and is able to release absorbed heat energy quickly, which signifi cantly reduces air conditioning loads and subsequent energy requirements. And while pleasing to the eye, the grass roof over the cafeteria also reduces and treats stormwater runoff and lowers A/C loads. High-Performance Schools 3 4 5 Throughout the building, occupancy sensors are used to control classroom lighting to automatically turn off lights when a room is unoccupied. To enhance daylight in classrooms, but to also prevent overheating from the sun, translucent glazing was used on the west side of the school. The building design also relied on recycled materials, such as gypsum board, 85 per cent of which comes from recycled materials, and structural steel, 80 per cent of which is made from recycled scrap metal. Using recycled materials bypasses the energy and greenhouse gas-intensive industrial manufacturing process, according to Cotaras. Citadel High also incorporates low-emitting paints, adhesives and sealants, and such interior construction materials as plywood panel walls and cabinetry that have no added urea formaldehyde – all of which improves indoor air quality. In addition, an area in the school is dedicated to the separation, collection and storage of materials for recycling paper, corrugated cardboard, glass, plastics, metals and compostable materials. That solid waste is diverted from landfills, as was 90 per cent of the waste generated during construction. Citadel High also used salvaged materials from the former high schools (stone medallions from Queen Elizabeth and exterior stone from Saint Patrick’s) and the former Bell Road campus of the Nova Scotia Community College that was situated on the site, from which came the glass block used in the new gyms and the glazed wood doors that now formthe entrance to the library. The school also saves water. Rainwater is collected from the roof, stored in an underground cistern and used for fl ushing toilets. That saves Citadel High an estimated 1.2 million litres of water per year. Waterless urinals are also used, saving about 980,000 litres of water annually. As well, no potable water is needed for irrigating the grounds since native landscapes (mostly grass) were used. Citadel High is also the first new building in Nova Scotia that exposes all of the steel structure without needing to cover it to protect it from fi re. This was achieved by using fi re-modelling software to prove alternate compliance with the prescriptive building code requirements, explains Cotaras. (Fowler Bauld & Mitchell were also the architects for the now three-year-old Sir John A. Macdonald High School in the Halifax suburb of Upper Tantallon. Sir John A. Macdonald recently received a LEED Canada Silver rating – the first school in the province to be certifi ed.) As for Citadel High, it’s also smoke-free and scent-free, and staff members have a guide that is used to monitor indoor air quality. Educational components concerning recycling and energy conservation are addressed with teachers and students every September. Cotaras says that overall, the building’s energy consumption is 27 per cent less than a similar building designed to the requirements of the Model National Energy Code. THE ROYAL ARCHITECTURAL INSTITUTE OF CANADA/L’INSTITUT ROYAL D’ARCHITECTURE DU CANADA ■ 15 FOWLER BAULD & MITCHELL LTD. | PHOTOS : FB & M LTD. www.raic.org/2009



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