Architecture Canada n°5 2nd semestre 2008
Architecture Canada n°5 2nd semestre 2008
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  • Parution : n°5 de 2nd semestre 2008

  • Périodicité : semestriel

  • Editeur : Naylor Canada

  • Format : (213 x 276) mm

  • Nombre de pages : 60

  • Taille du fichier PDF : 4,3 Mo

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www.raic.org/2008 High-performance buildings High-performance buildings reaching new heights By Christopher Guly FFrom a new federal administrative centre on the West Coast, to a regional-level operations hub in Ontario, to a new downtown Winnipeg high-rise for a major utility, Canadian buildings are reaching new heights in performance and sustainability through ground-breaking architectural design. Harnessing in Winnipeg When it opens later this year, Manitoba Hydro’s new head offi ce building in downtown Winnipeg will not only be one of the world’s most energy-effi cient large-scale buildings – aiming for a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Platinum standard – but could also bring new life to the provincial capital’s largely moribund urban core. The project, which began in 2002, was a huge integrated design undertaking involving architects and engineers from several firms, including Kuwabara Payne McKenna Blumberg (KPMB) Architects of Toronto, which handled the design ; Winnipeg-based Smith Carter (Architect of record) ; and Prairie Architects Inc. of Winnipeg, which helped select the site and design team while coordinating the integrated urban design (IDP) process, including the LEED-related documentation, led by Architect Dudley Thompson, MRAIC. Manitoba Hydrohad its own hands-on team led by Vice-president Tom Gouldsborough and project energy advisor Tom Akerstream. Thompson says that 10 two-day IDP sessions were held over an 18-month period, during which the team brainstormedon designs in real time. Manitoba Hydroset a goal to achievea 60-per-cent reduction below the Model National Energy Code Building for the 64,800-squaremetre headquarters. « At that scale, it’s never been done in such an extreme climate, » explains Bruce Kuwabara, FRAIC, the 2006 recipient of the RAIC Gold Medal for Architecture and a partner in KPMB Architects. Of all cities with a population over 500,000, Winnipeg is the coldest on the planet. But in the summer, it can get wellabove 35˚C – more than 70 degrees higher than it gets during the winter. To achievethe 60- per-cent target, the building was designed to maximize its passive energy gains. « In Winnipeg, that means solar, because it gets more sunlight than any other Canadian city, » says Kuwabara, adding that « counter-intuitively » the city also experiences unusually strong southerly winds. With all of that available sunshine, international climate-engineering firmTranssolar focused on using daylight to reduce the lighting loads of the building and identifi ed the potential of creating a hybrid ventilation system that would rely on a passive system of operable windows. Occupying a full city block, the formand massing of the building are driven by solar and wind energies with a design that operates in three seasonal modes (winter, summer, shoulder). The 23-storey, $188-million building includes a three-storey podium base that contains some 12 ■ THE ROYAL ARCHITECTURAL INSTITUTE OF CANADA/L’INSTITUT ROYAL D’ARCHITECTURE DU CANADA ARCHITECT : KUWABARA PAYNE MCKENNA BLUMBERG ARCHITECTS ; SMITH CARTER AND PRAIRIE ARCHITECTS/RENDERING : NORM LI AT NL AG+I Manitoba HydroBuilding : Above – North view, day. Page 13 : Top – Atrium ; Bottom – North view, night street-related retail space, one level of underground parking, and an 18-storey offi ce tower and two-storey mechanical penthouse above. Inside, the fl oor plate is divided into smaller precincts organized around a series of stacked six-storey atria. The atria connect to offi ce fl oors, and stairs support vertical circulation « to maximize face-to-face communication and collaboration between people and departments, » according to the project description.
ARCHITECT : KUWABARA PAYNE MCKENNA BLUMBERG ARCHITECTS ; SMITH CARTER AND PRAIRIE ARCHITECTS/RENDERING : NORM LI AT NL AG+I Two towers converge at the north and splay open to the south in the formof a capital A to capture maximum sunlight and strong southerly winds unique to the city’s climate. Transsolar fashioned the space within the splay as a double wall, partitioned into the stacked atria that act as solar collectors, and, combined with a six-storey solar chimney, performas the « lungs » of the building, providing it with maximum fresh air. A geothermal system maintains a constant 20˚C temperature in the concrete slabs year-round. « It’s the cumulative effect of the radiant cooling and heating in the slabs, with the 100-percent fresh air, plus a very high-performance building envelope, which is almost entirely glass, that creates a high level of comfort, » says Kuwabara. Essentially, the chimney is « the fan that passively drives the operation of the building, » says Thompson. In the formof a tall, thin slab, the chimney intersects the north end of the building at the main entrance where large canopies prevent windtunnel effects for pedestrians at street level. During the summer, warmair enters the fl ue and is exhausted out of the building. In winter, the warmair is drawn downward to heat the garage in the basement. Inside the building at ground level, a three-storey atria or « street » runs along the solar axis to connect the north and south entrances to the urban fabric of the city. Maximum use of daylight is achieved through triple glazing on lower-level surfaces, while the north and south atria have double façades. The double façade has an inner single- and an outer double-glazed wall with a buffer of air in between. The temperature between the two walls fluctuates naturally for most of the winter months, maintaining the performance of a triple-glazed façade. ARCHITECT : KUWABARA PAYNE MCKENNA BLUMBERG ARCHITECTS ; SMITH CARTER AND PRAIRIE ARCHITECTS/RENDERING : NORM LI AT NL AG+I High-performance buildings Though the buffer zones are confi gured in the winter for thermal insulation and fresh-air heating (in the case of the south atrium), their confi guration changes with the seasons. (Heating and cooling has been separated from the ventilation function.) Thompson points out that Transsolar designed the building to operate without a heating or cooling system for at least one-third of the year. The shades and windows are motorized on the outside. On the inside, the single-glazed windows are manually operated. Kuwabara says the building has also been designed so that the windows cannot be opened when the temperature outside drops well below freezing. He explains that inside the double-wall buffer zones, the windows are also equipped with motorized horizontal shades. When in certain positions, they act as « light shelves » that « bounce » light deeper into the building. The south atria also feature a water wall that adjusts the humidity levels in the building. This 24-metre-tall water feature comprises about 280 tensioned Mylar ribbons with conditioned water running down each ribbon. Chilled water dehumidifi es the air in the summer and warmwater humidifi es in the winter. Almost all – 92 per cent – of the building material reclaimedfrom existing buildings on the site, including Douglas fir, was recycled for other uses. Once occupied, Manitoba Hydro’s new downtown headquarters willaccommodate 2,000 employees currently dispersed at 12 offi ces throughout the city. In fact, the consolidation in the urban core was a condition former Winnipeg mayor Glen Murray, Hon. MRAIC (currently president and CEO of the Canadian Urban Institute) set for construction of the new headquarters for the energy utility, which acquired Winnipeg Hydroin 2002. « The idea was to bring people together on an urban site, » says Architect Kuwabara. He explains that Manitoba Hydrocould have opted for a self-contained monolithic structure complete with a large food court to keep employees inside. But the goal was to get people out of the building and onto the streets of downtown Winnipeg, patronizing retail shops and restaurants – and even living in the area. THE ROYAL ARCHITECTURAL INSTITUTE OF CANADA/L’INSTITUT ROYAL D’ARCHITECTURE DU CANADA ■ 13 www.raic.org/2008



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